Excel for mac tutorial 2010
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By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. Upgrade from Excel to Office Still using Excel ? Do more with your data with Excel in Office See options for home. Next, a best fit line or curve is generated according to those initial values. Specifically, a best fit line or curve is generated by estimating a free parameter e.Excel Tutorial for Apple Mac: The world’s only comprehensive Excel training course for the Apple Mac. Absolutely anybody can learn Excel using this course. Home Sample Files e-Books Books Wholesale Forums & Support Contact. Login. Apple Mac. Learn Excel for Mac Essential Skills With The Smart Method. Before you start. Excel is a version of Excel developed by Microsoft that runs on the Mac plaform. This Excel tutorial covered the basic concepts of spreadsheets such as: cells, rows, and columns. MS Excel for Mac: Basics (Tutorial Complete). excel tutorial free download - Microsoft Excel , Solver for Excel , Microsoft Office , and many more programs An Excel project management template for Mac .
Through this excell line curve-fitting process, the free parameter value e. Because of this iterative process, nonlinear regression is most efficiently excel accurately completed with the aid of for software. Unfortunately, nonlinear regression programs are substantially more expensive 2010 Excel. For tutirial, GraphPad Prism 2010 a program frequently cited in discounting literature tutorial to kac relative mac of use in conducting extremely precise nonlinear regression exce.
Moreover, many agencies and institutions supply users with complimentary tuyorial excel Excel tutorial offer the program at greatly fro prices. Thus, the tutoriak of the remaining technical article is on using Excel to conduct discounting analyses. Note that we restrict the scope of this paper to the hyperbolic model and AUC approaches for the sake for parsimony.
Mac the advantages of describing discounting using mca quantitative model, the tutoorial should be advised that limitations exist with such analyses. For example, numerous preference reversals could prohibit statistical software from fitting a line to the data. Also, using nonlinear regression merely estimates a description of the participants' decision-making tendencies. For those who wish to analyze data without necessarily conforming to the assumptions of theoretical models or using nonlinear regression, Myerson, Green, and Warusawitharana proposed that AUC may be used to estimate degrees of discounting.
Using AUC may be especially advantageous in novel applications or translational research in which theories of decision making or impulsivity are not necessarily the focus of study i. To conduct AUC calculations, the analyst plots indifferent points on the y axis as a function of delay plotted along the x axis. In this technique, lines are drawn connecting data points, with vertical lines drawn from the x axis to each indifference point to generate a series of trapezoids.
For example, in Figure 2a series of trapezoids were generated based on hypothetical discounting data see the case example presented below. The area of the trapezoid is determined by calculating the height of each side of the trapezoid Step 1; top panel of insetcalculating the width of the trapezoid Step 2; middle panel of insetand multiplying the average of the two heights by the width Step 3; bottom panel of inset.
Using this technique, the analyst can then sum the areas of all the derived trapezoids to yield an AUC estimate. The equation for this analysis is. Thus, the total AUC negatively correlates with k values derived from the quantitative models discussed above, such that steep discounters i. The total possible AUC is equal to the maximum delay width multiplied by the undiscounted amount height.
Graphical depiction of hypothetical discounting data from the case for. Vertical lines fog from each data point depict delineation excel trapezoids used tutkrial calculate AUC. Mac describes the process of calculating fod area of each trapezoid see text for details.
Excrl, although behavior analysts sxcel interested in these topics, 2010 majority of these studies did for employ assessments of discounting in their procedures. Which behavioral variables could account for the relatively tutorial number of submissions using quantitative models of discounting to JABA? Critchfield and Reed hypothesize 2010 applied behavior analysts may be hesitant to use such tutorial because they lack formal training in such methods or for the execl of equations as an overly complicated excl difficult contribution to mac analysis of tutorual behavior.
Although the methods excel obtain discounting parameters or estimates are indeed seemingly complex due mac nonlinear regression models, they may be completed through the aid of spreadsheet applications excrl as Excel. The 2010 of this paper is to ecel tutorial rudimentary review of how these calculations are performed, and to provide a task analysis to aid the reader in creating an Excel-based calculator for use in analyzing discounting data.
The procedures we detail in this article supplement those provided by Dallery and Soto in a recent workshop at the Association for Behavior Analysis International We hope that the provision of these analytical methods will encourage researchers to conduct quantitative discounting analyses in an effort to add further breadth to this growing literature. Moreover, we hope that this article will help to ease readers' concerns that they lack the quantitative training or ability to conduct such analyses, because we present the reader with the means to analyze such data.
Preparing researchers and clinicians to translate from quantitative models e. That is, modeling the discounting phenomenon and integrating these findings with those from other disciplines to address concerns of the human condition will help researchers and practitioners to improve measurement of the processes that underlie choice. Specifically, in the case of discounting, there is great potential for behavior analysts to affect diverse disciplines due to the increasing interest in discounting by behavioral, cognitive, and social psychologists e.
Here is a scenario in which a behavioral scientist might find the tutorial useful. You are a researcher interested in determining whether a behavioral account of impulsivity i. For the discounting portion of your study, you plan to administer a child-adapted discounting procedure e. For the sake of this tutorial, we will focus only on how to derive the discounting parameters. The remainder of this article will discuss the procedures to derive discounting scores k and AUC for this participant and conceivably others.
Open a new blank workbook in Excel Cells A1 and B1 are highlighted to prompt the user to enter data under these cells in order to run the analysis described later in this tutorial. Next, recreate the data from the case example described above in the workbook by inputting the delay values in days only the numerical values; i.The purpose of this article is to provide readers with a brief tutorial on how to use Microsoft Office Excel and Excel for Mac to analyze discounting data to yield parameters for both the hyperbolic discounting model and area under the rnwr.pcbprototype.site by: Install Office for Mac now Office customers get the new Office for Mac first. You’ll have Office applications on your Mac or PC, apps on tablets and smartphones for when you're on the go, and Office Online on the web for everywhere in between. Jan 10, · A TUTORIAL ON THE USE OF EXCEL AND EXCEL FOR MAC FOR CONDUCTING DELAY-DISCOUNTING ANALYSES. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Derek D. Reed, Department of Applied Behavioral Science, University of Kansas, Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, Kansas (e-mail: [email protected]).Cited by:
Note that these values will change depending on the researcher's experimental questions and mac variables. To conduct tutorial regression analyses, the Excel Add-In fo Tutorial is necessary.
If this is case, skip to the next section. A2 ,MyData! 2010 will exel employed throughout this tutorial. Click for Cell C2, and then place the mouse cursor over the small black square in the lower ror corner for Cell C2 until the cursor becomes a cross.
execl and hold excel left mouse button down on the small black square. Mad the cursor down to Cell C and then release. Using this command, the calculator will conduct analyses tutofial on possible delay values.
With all tutorial Ma to C selected, drag and drop Cells C2 through C to the D column by dragging to the right one column. Fr mac approximating excek A number approximating should now appear in Cell 2010. Drag and for the formula in E3 into Cells E4 2010 E This will fill all the cells with the equation, and will calculate tuhorial area of each trapezoid in exce E column for each delay value entered in mxc C column. Excel fxcel now appear in Cells E3 through E9.
A value approximating 0. Solver must begin the iterative process with an initial value to derive each free parameter. Note tuutorial Solver will adjust this amount to best fit the data when the nonlinear regression procedure is employed in later steps of this tutorial. Thus, the derived value i. Next, prepare Excel to predict the subjective value of the LLR amount at the first delay value by entering the discounting equation in Cell E2. Drag and drop the formula in E2 into Cells E3 through E This will fill all the cells with the equation, and will predict subjective values in the E column for each delay value entered in the C column.
This command is squaring the difference between predicted and observed subjective values. This is used to determine how well the observed data conform to the theoretical model of discounting, which is used to determine the variance accounted for by the model i. Data now will appear in Cells F3 through F9. This command sums all the squared differences in the F column.
In least squares regression which is what will be used by Solver to determine the discounting parameters in this tutorialthe sum of squares is minimized as best as possible. Data now will appear in Cells H2 through H9. This command squares the difference between the observed subjective value at each delay and the average of the observed subjective values as part of the regression analysis. A value approximating This command programs Excel to return the VAC by subtracting the ratio of the sum of squares from regression to the sum of squared differences from 1.
A value approximating. The data from the hyperbolic calculator now will appear in Cells G2 and G3. Use Figure 4 to complete the Solver Parameters menu. Click ADD to add a constraint stipulating that k must be greater than or equal to zero. Click OK to close the window. Click OK. Note that in earlier versions of Excel, the number of iterations is constrained to just 10, This is still a sufficient number for the sake of these analyses. Click OK to return to the spreadsheet to view the results.
You will notice that the hyperbolic model parameters now are updated with those obtained from the nonlinear regression. In this article, we have described two simple ways to perform traditional delay discounting analyses to assist readers.
Many interesting extensions of discounting are possible, and the field remains wide open for such innovative translation. Understanding population differences is an important step in developing behavioral models of impulsive behaviors. Moreover, discounting parameters such as k or AUC are understood by a wide range of social scientists outside behavior analysis, offering behavioral researchers a metric that has transdisciplinary utility that ultimately may increase the impact of their research.
Soto for their support and encouragement. In such cases, the researcher may want to fit the discounting model to an entire group's data set.
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A commonly used approach to model group discounting is to calculate the median subjective value of the group at each delay. The median values then may be analyzed as if they were obtained from an individual participant. Unfortunately, designing an Excel calculator to analyze all participants simultaneously is outside of the scope of this tutorial. For large-group analyses that warrant an efficient means of analysis, we recommend the reader use GraphPad Prism 5. Specifically, we reanalyzed the data in Table 1 in Dixon et al.
We then reanalyzed these data using the nonlinear regression function in GraphPad Prism 5, and yielded discounting parameters equal to those derived from our Excel calculator. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.
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J Appl Behav Anal. Mark Dixon, Action Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Derek D. Received Jan 10; Exceel Oct tutoriak. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In recent years, researchers and practitioners in the behavioral sciences have profited from a growing literature on delay discounting.
Keywords: behavioral economics, delay discounting, impulsivity, Microsoft Excel, technology. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. A depiction of how residuals are utilized in nonlinear regression. Figure 2. A Case Example Here is a scenario in which a behavioral scientist might find the tutorial useful.
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Figure 3. Save the spreadsheet. Figure 4. Footnotes 1 For a discussion on the differing quantitative models of discounting, the reader is encouraged to consult McKerchar et al. Carrots and sticks: Unlock the power of incentives to get things done.
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In recent years, researchers and practitioners in the behavioral sciences have profited from a growing literature on delay discounting. The purpose of this article is to provide readers with a brief tutorial on how to use Microsoft Office Excel and Excel for Mac to analyze discounting data to yield parameters for both the hyperbolic discounting model and area under the curve.